Modern solid-state devices are electronic components made of semiconductor materials that have replaced the traditional vacuum tube technology. These devices include transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits. They offer several advantages such as high efficiency, smaller size, and lower power consumption compared to their vacuum tube counterparts. Modern solid-state devices have revolutionized the electronics industry and have enabled the development of advanced technology such as computers, smartphones, and medical equipment.
These are just a few examples of advanced topics in computer architecture. There are many other areas to explore, including memory hierarchy, computer networks, and more.